Risk calculators, laboratory tests, and therapy recommendations with race-based guidelines

Purpose ▼ Specialty  Category  Description  Use of race  Rationale for use of race  Variables  Year introduced  Race-free version  Race-free year introduced 
ASCVD Risk Calculator Cardiology Risk calculator Estimates 10-year primary risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) among patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease who are between 40 and 79 years of age.
African American patients are predicted to have a higher risk of ASCVD compared to white patients. Based on community-based cohorts of adults, the incidence of ASCVD is higher in African American patients compared to white patients. Age, Sex, Race, Diabetes, Smoker, Systolic blood pressure, Total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, Diabetes, Treatment for high blood pressure

Race: (White, African American, Other)
2014
Anemia in pregnancy Obstetrics Laboratory test American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) provides recommendations for the screening for iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women and implementing universal iron supplementation.
Treatment is recommended in all women with hemoglobin levels below 10.2 g/dL in the third trimester. However, treatment is recommended only in non-Black women with hemoglobin levels in the range of 10.2 to 11.0 g/dL. The distributions of hemoglobin concentrations were found to be lower among Black women compare to white women, and it is presumed that applying the same criteria for anemia to all races results in a higher rate of false-positive cases of iron deficiency for Black women. Hemoglobin, Race

Race: (Black, Other)
1998 The race-based cutoff was removed from ACOG's revised recommendations. Iron deficiency anemia will be screened for in all pregnant women with hematocrit levels less than 33% in the first and third trimesters and less than 32% in the second trimester.

2021
Body mass index (BMI) risk for diabetes Endocrinology Risk calculator American Diabetes Association (ADA) provides recommendations for the screening for type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Testing for diabetes is recommended in Asian American individuals with BMI ≥23 while testing is recommended in individuals of other races with BMI ≥25. At similar BMI levels, it is presumed that Asian patients develop more visceral fat than peripheral fat, thereby increasing their risk for insulin resistance. Weight, Height, Race

Race: (Asian American, Other)
2015
Breast Cancer Nomogram to Predict Benefit of Radiation Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 5-year and 10-year mastectomy-free survival in older women with early breast cancer.
All other parameters being the same, Black women have reduced mastectomy-free survival probability compared to white women. Based on epidemiological data, Black women have a lower incidence of 5-year and 10-year mastectomy-free survival than white women. Age, Race, Tumor size, Estrogen receptor status, Nodal status

Race: (Black, White, Other)
2012
Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (BCSC) Risk Calculator Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 5- and 10-year risk of developing breast cancer in women who have no personal history of the disease.
American Indian, Black, Hispanic, and Asian women are predicted to have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than women of other races. Based on epidemiological data, American Indian, Black, Hispanic, and Asian women have lower incidence of breast cancer than women of other races. Age, Race/Ethnicity, BIRADS breast density score, First-degree relative with breast cancer, Pathology results from prior biopsies

Race: (White, Black, Asian, Native American, Hispanic, Other/Multiple Races, Unknown)
2015

COVID-19 Positive Risk of Severe COVID-19 Infectious Diseases Risk calculator Estimates risk of progression to severe COVID-19 leading to ICU admission or death.
Risk varies with race when all other parameters remain the same with Asian patients followed by Black patients at increased risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of progression to severe COVID-19 in various racial populations. Age, Gender, Race, Household Income, Body mass index, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease / emphysema, Diabetes, Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Heart failure, Transplant history, Multiple sclerosis, Immunosuppressive disease, Immunosuppressive treatment, Steroids, Carvedilol, Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

Race: (Asian, White, Black, Other)
2020
CanRisk (BOADICEA Model) Oncology Risk calculator Estimates risk of developing breast cancer in women using the BOADICEA Model.
Ashkenazi Jewish women are predicted to have a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Based on epidemiological data, Ashkenazi Jewish women have a higher incidence of breast cancer than women of other races. Family history of breast, ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancer, Rare pathogenic variants in susceptibility genes, Ages of unaffected family members, Ashkenazi Jewish origin, Year of birth, Age of menarche, Parity, Age at first live birth, Use of oral contraception, Use of menopause hormone therapy, Body mass index, Daily alcohol intake, Mammographic density, Height, Common cancer genetic susceptibility variants (Polygenic Risk Scores)

Race: (Ashkenazi Jewish, Other/Unknown)
2019
CanRisk (Ovarian Cancer Model) Oncology Risk calculator Estimates risk of developing ovarian cancer in women using the Ovarian Cancer Model.
Ashkenazi Jewish women are predicted to have a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer. Based on epidemiological data, Ashkenazi Jewish women have a higher incidence of ovarian cancer than women of other races. Family history of breast, ovarian, prostate and pancreatic cancer, Rare pathogenic variants in susceptibility genes, Ages of unaffected family members, Ashkenazi Jewish origin, Year of birth, Parity, Use of oral contraception, Use of menopause hormone therapy, Body mass index, Height, Tubal ligation procedure, Endometriosis, Common cancer genetic susceptibility variants (Polygenic Risk Scores)

Race: (Ashkenazi Jewish, Other/Unknown)
2021
Cardiac Risk Index for Infrainguinal Bypass Surgery Risk calculator Estimates risk of in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction after infrainguinal bypass.
All other parameters being the same, the risk varies with race; the risk is lowest for Black patients, then white patients, and highest for patients in the others category. Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction in various racial populations. Age, Creatinine, Diabetes, History of Coronary Artery Disease, History of Congestive Heart Failure, Indication for Surgery, Smoking History, Results of Stress Test within Past 2 Years, Hypertension, Planned Level of Distal Anastomosis, Race

Race: (White, Black, Other)
2016
Cardiac Risk Index for Open Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Repair Surgery Risk calculator Estimates risk of in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction after open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair.
All other parameters being the same, non-white patients have higher risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction in various racial populations. Age, Body mass index, Race, Creatinine, Any Prior Vascular Surgery, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, History of Congestive Heart Failure, Planned Level of Distal Anastomosis, Planned Proximal Clamp Position, Results of Stress Test within past 2 years, Prior CABG or PCI

Race: (White, Non-White)
2016
Colon Cancer Survival Calculator Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 5-year conditional cancer-specific survival in patients with colon cancer.
All other parameters being the same, Black patients have slightly reduced survival probability (1%) compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data, Black patients have a lower incidence of survival than white patients. Age, Sex, Race, Grade, Stage

Race: (White, Black, Other)
2009
Denver HIV Risk Score Infectious Diseases Risk calculator Estimates probability of undiagnosed HIV infection.
Probability varies with race when all other parameters remain the same with Black patients followed by Hispanic patients at increased risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate higher HIV prevalence in Hispanic and Black patients. Age, Gender, Sexual practices, Other risk factors, Race/ethnicity

Race: (Black, Hispanic, American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, non-Hawaiian Pacific Islander or other, White)
2012
Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) Hypertension Guidelines Cardiology Therapy recommendation Provides recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and management of hypertension, including initial medication choices.
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are recommended as initial medication choices in nonblack patients but not in Black patients. ACE-inhibitor and ARB use are associated with higher risk of stroke and poorer control of blood pressure in Black patients than in nonblack patients. Age, Diabetes, Chronic kidney disease, Race

Race: (Black, Nonblack)
2014
Expected Peak Expiratory Flow Pulmonology Laboratory test Estimates expected peak expiratory flow from actual peak flow rate.
All other parameters being the same, Black patients are assigned lower expected peak expiratory flow compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate Black patients have lower limits and higher variability due to a smaller trunk to leg ratio. Age, Height, Race/ethnicity, Actual peak flow rate

Race: (Caucasian, African American, Mexican-American, Other)
1999
FRAX Endocrinology Risk calculator Estimates 10-year probability of major osteoporosis-related fracture.
The U.S. calculator assigns a lower fracture risk if a female patient is identified as Black (by a factor of 0.43), Asian (0.50), or Hispanic (0.53). Different geographical and ethnic minority populations are presumed to have varied relative risks of fracture on the basis of epidemiological data. Age, Sex, Weight, Height, Previous fracture, Parent Fracture Hip, Current Smoking, Glucocorticoid use, Rheumatoid arthritis, Secondary osteoporosis, Alcohol use, ≥3 drinks per day, Femoral neck bone mineral density

Race: (Caucasian, Hispanic, Black, Asian)
2008
Gail Model for Breast Cancer Risk (Gail Model 1) Oncology Risk calculator Estimates risk of developing breast cancer in women.
African American patients are predicted to have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than patients of other races. Based on epidemiological data, African American women have a lower incidence of breast cancer than women of other races. Age, First menstrual period, First live birth, First-degree relative with breast cancer, Previous breast biopsy, Race/Ethnicity

Race: (White, African American, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Unknown)
1989
Get with the Guidelines - Heart Failure Cardiology Risk calculator Predicts in-hospital mortality in patients with acute heart failure.
All other parameters being the same, nonblack patients have an increased probability of death. Based on epidemiological data, nonblack patients have a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality in patients with acute heart failure than Black patients. Systolic blood pressure, Blood urea nitrogen, Sodium, Age, Heart rate, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease history, Race

Race: (Black, Nonblack)
2010
Intracranial Hemorrhage From Thrombolytic Therapy Calculator Cardiology Risk calculator Estimates risk of cerebral bleeding in patients treated with thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infarction.
Black patients are assigned a higher score indicating a higher risk of cerebral bleeding compared to other races. Studies show that Black patients are at higher risk of cerebral bleeding. Age, Gender, Race, Prior history of stroke, Systolic blood pressure, Body weight, international normalised ratio (INR) > 4 or prothrombin > 24 secs, tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) as thrombolytic therapy

Race: (Black, Other)
2016
Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) Nephrology Risk calculator Estimates risk of post-transplant kidney graft failure from a particular deceased donor.
Due to a regression coefficient (0.179) not present in other races, African American deceased donors increase the risk of kidney graft failure. As a result, African American donors are predicted to lead to a 20% increase in risk of kidney graft failure. The presence of 2 apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene variants is associated with a 2-fold increased risk of kidney graft failure compared with donors with 1 or 0 APOL1 gene variants, and African Americans have a higher prevalence of 2 APOL1 gene variants. Age, Hypertensive, Diabetic, Serum creatinine level, Cause of death (e.g., stroke), Height, Weight, Donation after cardiac death, Hepatitis C, HLA matching, Cold ischemia, En bloc transplantation, Double kidney transplantation

Race: (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic/Latino, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander, White, Multiracial)
2009 Race-free KDRI calculator did not impact predictive accuracy and may lower discard of kidneys from Black donors.

Kinetic Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (keGFR) Nephrology Laboratory test Estimates glomerular filtration rate in patients with acutely changing creatinine.
Use of the MDRD glomerular filtration rate equation leads to higher predicted GFR in black patients. Based on the MDRD GFR equation which presumes that Black patients have more muscle mass and a higher rate of creatinine generation than patients of other races. Age, Sex, Baseline creatinine, First recorded creatinine, Second recorded creatinine, Time between both creatinine measurements, Race

Race: (Black, Nonblack)
2013
Lung Cancer Risk Estimation in Current and Past Smokers Oncology Risk calculator Estimates probability of developing lung cancer in 6 years.
All other parameters being the same, Black and Native Pacific islander/Hawaiian patients have higher risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data, Black and Native Pacific islander/Hawaiian patients have a higher incidence of lung cancer than white patients. Age, Race, Education, Body mass index, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, History of cancer, Family history of lung cancer, Current smoker, Cigarettes per day, Years smoking, Years since quitting smoking

Race: (White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, Native American/Alaskan, Native Pacific Islander/Hawaiian)
2013
MDRD GFR Equation Nephrology Laboratory test Estimates glomerular filtration rate based on serum creatinine levels and derived from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study
The eGFR for Black patients is multiplied by 1·161 the eGFR for white patients. Black patients are presumed to have more muscle mass and a higher rate of creatinine generation than patients of other races. Age, Sex, Serum creatinine, Race

Race: (Black, White or Other)
2003 The National Kidney Foundation (NKF) and the American Society of Nephrology (ASN) Task Force recommends using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) Creatinine-Cystatin Equation that does not specify race.


Variables: Age, Sex, Serum Creatinine, Serum Cystatin C (optional)
2021
National Cancer Institute Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT) (Gail Model 2) Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 5-year and lifetime risk of developing invasive breast cancer in women who have no personal history of the disease.
African American, Hispanic/Latina, and Asian American women are predicted to have a lower risk of developing breast cancer than women of other races. Based on epidemiological data, African American, Hispanic/Latina, and Asian American women have a lower incidence of breast cancer than women of other races. Current age, Age at menarche, Age at first live birth, First-degree relatives with breast cancer, Prior breast biopsy with a benign diagnosis, Prior breast biopsy with atypical hyperplasia, Race/ethnicity

Race: (White, African American, Hispanic/Latina, Asian American, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Unknown)
1992
Osteoporosis Risk Score Endocrinology Risk calculator Stratifies osteoporosis risk in post-menopausal women.
Nonblack patients are assigned 5 additional points and a higher risk. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women is higher among nonblack patients. Age, Weight, Estrogen use, Race, Weight, Race, Rheumatoid arthritis, Fracture history

Race: (Black, Nonblack)
1998
Pancreas Cancer Survival Calculator Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 3-year conditional cancer-specific survival in patients with pancreatic cancer.
All other parameters being the same, Black patients have reduced survival probability compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data, Black patients have a lower incidence of survival than white patients. Age, Gender, Race, Grade, Stage, Radiation, Tumor site

Race: (White, Black, Other)
2012
Predict COVID-19 Test Result Infectious Diseases Risk calculator Estimates probability of positive COVID-19 test result.
Probability varies with race when all other parameters remain the same with Black patients at increased risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of positive COVID-19 test results in various racial populations. Age, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Smoking, Body mass index, Symptoms and risks, Comorbidities, Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, Influenza vaccine, Pre-testing medications, Platelets, AST, Chloride, Creatinine, Hematocrit, Potassium

Race: (Race: Asian, White, Black, Other and Ethnicity: Hispanic, Non-Hispanic, Unknown)
2020
Predict Hospitalization Risk for COVID-19 Positive Infectious Diseases Risk calculator Estimates risk of hospitalization in COVID-19.
Risk varies with race when all other parameters remain the same with Asian patients followed by Black patients at increased risk compared to white patients. Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of hospitalization in COVID-19 in various racial populations. Age, Race, Ethnicity, Gender, Smoking, Body mass index, Symptoms and risks, Comorbidities, Platelets, AST, Blood urea nitorgen, Chloride, Potassium

Race: (Race: Asian, White, Black, Other and Ethnicity: Hispanic, Non-Hispanic, Unknown)
2020
Predicting Risk of Urinary Incontinence and Adverse Events in Patients 12 Months after Midurethral Sling Surgery Obstetrics Risk calculator Predicts a woman’s risk of developing stress and urgency urinary incontinence and adverse events 12 months after sling surgery.
When all other parameters are held constant, the calculator assigns a higher risk to non-Caucasian women. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of stress and urgency urinary incontinence and adverse events after sling surgery is higher among non-Caucasian women. Age, Race, Vaginal Parity, Menopause, POBQ BA, POBG C, Prior Pelvic Surgery, Prior Medical (non-surgical) Treatment for UI, Urinary symptoms, Type of sling surgery

Race: (Caucasian, Other)
2016
Pulse oximetry Pulmonology Laboratory test Measures the level of oxygen saturation in the blood non-invasively at the point of care.
Measurements may be less accurate in individuals with darker skin pigmentations. The principles of pulse oximetry rely on the differential light absorption of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin in capillary blood to estimate oxygen saturation indirectly. However, skin pigmentation can affect light absorption, leading to inaccurate measurements in people with darker skin. Light intensity 2022
QRISK3 Risk Calculator Cardiology Risk calculator Calculates a person's 10-year risk of developing a heart attack or stroke.
UK-based ethnicity is used to adjust the score. The highest risk is assigned to Bangladeshi patients (20.1%) and the lowest risk to Black Caribbean patients (8.3%). Based on epidemiological data that indicate varying rates of heart attack or stroke in various ethnic populations. Age, Sex, Ethnicity, Smoking status, Diabetes status, Angina or heart attack in a 1st degree relative < 60, Chronic kidney disease (stage 3, 4 or 5), Atrial fibrillation, On blood pressure treatment, Migraines, Rheumatoid arthritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Severe mental illness, On atypical antipsychotic medication, On steroids, A diagnosis of or treatment for erectile dysfunction, Cholesterol/HDL ratio, Systolic blood pressure, Standard deviation of at least two most recent systolic blood pressure readings, Height, Weight

Race: (White or not stated, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Other Asian, Black Caribbean, Black African, Chinese, Other ethnic group)
2017
Rectal Cancer Survival Calculator Oncology Risk calculator Estimates 1-5 year conditional survival in rectal cancer.
Black patients have a higher regression coefficient (1.18 - 1.72) than white patients, who have a regression coefficient of 1. As a result, black patients are predicted to have lower conditional survival than white patients. Based on epidemiological data, Black patients with rectal cancer have lower survival than white patients. Age, Sex, Race, Tumor grade, Tumor stage, Type of surgery

Race: (White, Black, Other)
2013
Risk for Fetal Growth Restriction Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk for fetal growth restriction (birth weight <5th percentile for gestational age).
For the same parameters, Afro-Caribbean and South Asian women have a higher risk of fetal growth restriction than Caucasian women. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of fetal growth restriction is higher in Afro-Caribbean women and South Asian women than Caucasian women. Maternal age, Weight, Height, Race, Diabetes mellitus type II, Chronic hypertension, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Smoking during pregnancy, Method of conception, Previous obstetric history, Fetal measurements at 11-13 weeks

Race: (Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed )
2011
Risk for Fetal Macrosomia Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk for fetal macrosomia (birth weight >90th percentile for gestational age).
For the same parameters, Afro-Caribbean (6.4%) and South Asian (8.7%) women have a lower risk for fetal macrosomia than Caucasian (11.9%) women. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of fetal macrosomia is lower in Afro-Caribbean women and East Asian women than Caucasian women. Weight, Height, Race, Diabetes mellitus type I or II, Chronic hypertension, Smoking during pregnancy, Previous obstetric history, Fetal measurements at 11-13 weeks

Race: (Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2021
Risk for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.
For the same parameters, East Asian (1 in 30), South Asian (1 in 38), and Black (1 in 55) women have a higher risk of gestational diabetes than white (1 in 86) women. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of gestational diabetes is higher in East Asian women, South Asian women and Black women than white women. Maternal age, Weight, Height, Race, Conception method, Family history of diabetes, Obstetric history

Race: (White, Black, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2015
Risk for Miscarriage at 12 - 24 Weeks Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk for miscarriage at 12-24 weeks.
In comparison to other races, Afro-Caribbean (4.7%) and Mixed (3.5%) women have a higher risk of miscarriage at 12-24 weeks than Caucasian (1.6%), East Asian (1.6%), and South Asian (1.6%) women . Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of miscarriage at 11-24 weeks of pregnancy is higher in Afro-Caribbean and Mixed women than Caucasian women, East Asian women and South Asian women. Maternal age, Weight, Race, Method of conception, Diabetes mellitus type I or II, Previous obstetric history, Fetal measurements at 11-13 weeks

Race: (Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2011
Risk for Preeclampsia Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk of preterm preeclampsia during first, second and third trimester of pregnancy.
In comparison to women of other races, Black women are assigned a lower risk of preterm preeclampsia for the same parameters. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of preeclampsia is lower in Black women than women of other races. Pregnancy type, Gestational age, Date of birth, Height, Weight, Racial origin, Smoking during pregnancy, Mother of the patient had PE, Conception method, Chronic hypertension, Diabetes type I, Diabetes type II, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Anti-phospholipid syndrome, Obstetric history, Mean arterial pressure, Mean uterine artery PI, Serum PLGF, Serum PAPP-A

Race: (White, Black, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2018
Risk for Preterm Birth at <34 Weeks Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk for spontaneous birth at <34 weeks.
For the same parameters, Afro-Caribbean women (1 in 67) have a higher risk of preterm birth at <34 weeks than Caucasian women (1 in 117). Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of preterm birth at <34 weeks is higher in Afro-Caribbean women than Caucasian women. Maternal age, Height, Race, Method of conception, Smoking, Previous obstetric history

Race: (Caucasian, Afro-Caribbean, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed )
2011
Risk for Stillbirth Obstetrics Risk calculator Predicts the risk of still birth in pregnant women.
For the same parameters, Black women (1 in 227) have higher rate of stillbirth than white, South Asian, East Asian and Mixed women (all 1 in 455). Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of stillbirth is higher in Black women than white women, East Asian women, South Asian women and Mixed women. Maternal weight, Race, Smoking during pregnancy, Diabetes, Chronic hypertension, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Anti-phospholipid syndrome, Obstetric history

Race: (White, Black, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2022
Risk for Trisomies at 11 -13 Weeks Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risks for trisomies 21, 18 and 13 at 11-13 weeks’ gestation.
Despite the inclusion of race as an input, there is no difference in risk based on maternal race. Rationale for including race is unclear. Age, Weight, Race, Smoking, Conception method, Singleton or twins, Smoking during pregnancy, Previous baby/fetus with T21, Previous baby/fetus with T18, Previous baby/fetus with T13, Diabetes type I, Diabetes type II, Obstetric history, Fetal measurements at 11-13 weeks, PAPP-A measurement, Free β-hCG measurement

Race: (White, Black, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2020
Risk for small for gestational age (SGA) Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile in pregnant women.
For the same parameters, Black women (1 in 30) have a higher risk of delivering a small for gestational age neonate than Caucasian women (1 in 55). Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of delivering a small for gestational age neonate is higher in Black women than Caucasian women. Gestational age, Height, Weight, Racial origin, Smoking during pregnancy, Conception method, Chronic hypertension, Diabetes type I, Diabetes type II, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Anti-phospholipid syndrome, Estimated fetal weight, Mean uterine artery PI

Race: (White, Black, South Asian, East Asian, Mixed)
2018
STONE score Urology Risk calculator Predicts likelihood of ureteral stone in nontoxic-appearing patients with flank pain.
The likelihood of a ureteral stone is predicted on a 13-point scale, with a higher score indicating a higher risk; three additional points are assigned for Caucasian patients. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of ureteral stone in nontoxic-appearing patients with flank pain is higher among Caucasian patients. Sex, Duration of pain prior to presentation, Nausea and vomiting, Hematuria on urine dipstick, Race

Race: (Caucasian, Non-Caucasian)
2014
Spirometry Reference Value Calculator Pulmonology Laboratory test Estimates references values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC).
Reference values for FEV1 and FVC are lower for Black individuals (13%) and Asian individuals (7%). Based on epidemiological data, it is presumed that different lung functions exist among racial and ethnic minority groups. Age, Height, Gender, Race

Race: (Caucasian, Black, Asian)
1993 Efforts to eliminate the use of race are ongoing.

The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Short Term Risk Calculator Surgery Risk calculator Predicts complications and death in common cardiac surgeries.
All other parameters being the same, Black patients have increased risk of complications and death. Based on epidemiological data, Black patients have a higher incidence of complications and death in cardiac surgery compared to patients of other races. Type of surgery, Age, Sex, Race, Body mass index (plus >60 variables)

Race: (Black/African American, Asian, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, White)
2018
UTICalc Urology Risk calculator Predicts the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) in febrile children 2 years of age or younger to guide decisions about when to pursue urine testing for definitive diagnosis.
The calculator assigns the lowest probability of UTI to Black children and the highest probability to white children. Epidemiological data on febrile children in the emergency department found the highest prevalence of UTI among white girls and nonblack boys. Age, Sex, Circumcision, Race, Other fever source

Race: (Black, Nonblack)
2018 The original calculator was replaced by a race-free UTICalc calculator with comparable predictive performance.


Variables: Age, Maximum temperature ≥ 39 °C, History of UTI, Sex, Circumcision, Other fever source, Duration of fever ≥ 48 hrs
2022
Urinary and Fecal Incontinence Nomogram with Planned Mode of Delivery Predictor Obstetrics Risk calculator Predicts a woman’s probability of developing urinary or fecal incontinence after her first delivery.
The calculator assigns different risk probabilities based on race, when all other parameters are held constant. Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of urinary or fecal incontinence is highest among Asian women, followed by Black women, and lowest among white women. Maternal age, Race, Pre-pregnancy urinary incontinence, Antepartum urinary incontinence, Pre-pregnancy body mass index, Pre-delivery body mass index Planned Mode of Delivery, Duration of second stage of labor, Type of delivery, Episiotomy, Perineal laceration degree, Fetal birthweight, Fetal head circumference, Fetal head position at crowning

Race: (White, Black, Asian, Unknown)
2013
Vaginal Birth After Cesarean (VBAC) Obstetrics Risk calculator Estimates the chance of successful vaginal delivery after prior cesarean section delivery.
African American women and Hispanic/Latina women are predicted to have a lower chance of successful vaginal delivery. The reductions in the chance of success for African American (0.671) and Hispanic/Latina (0.680) women are nearly as large as the benefit from prior vaginal delivery (0.888) or prior VBAC (1.003). Based on epidemiological data, the incidence of successful vaginal delivery after prior cesarean section delivery is lower in Black and Latina women than women of other races. Age, Body mass index, Race, Any prior vaginal delivery, Prior VBAC, Recurring indication of prior cesarean delivery

Race: (White and others, Latina, African American)
2009 Race-free VBAC calculator has similar predictive performance as the prior calculator.


Variables: Age, Pre-pregnancy weight, Height, Arrest disorder for previous cesarean delivery, Obstetric history, Treated chronic hypertension
2021